Your Rights and Protections Against Surprise Medical Bills

When you get emergency care or get treated by an out‐of‐network provider at an
in‐network hospital or ambulatory surgical center, you are protected from
surprise billing or balance billing.

What is “balance billing” (sometimes called “surprise billing”)?
When you see a doctor or other health care provider, you may owe certain out‐of‐pocket costs, such as a co payment, coinsurance, and/or a deductible. You may have other costs or have to pay the entire bill if you see a provider or visit a health care facility that isn’t in your health plan’s network.

“Out‐of‐network” describes providers and facilities that haven’t signed a contract with your
health plan. Out‐of‐network providers may be permitted to bill you for the difference between what your plan agreed to pay and the full amount charged for a service. This is called “balance billing.” This amount is likely more than in‐network costs for the same service and might not count toward your annual out‐of‐pocket limit.

“Surprise billing” is an unexpected balance bill. This can happen when you can’t control who is involved in your care—like when you have an emergency or when you schedule a visit at an in network facility but are unexpectedly treated by an out‐of‐network provider.

You are protected from balance billing for:
Emergency services: If you have an emergency medical condition and get emergency services from an out‐of-network provider or facility, the most the provider or facility may bill you is your plan’s in-network cost‐sharing amount (such as co-payments and coinsurance). You can’t be balance billed for these emergency services. This includes services you may get after you’re in stable condition, unless you give written consent and give up your protections not to be balanced billed for these post‐stabilization services.

Certain services at an in‐network hospital or ambulatory surgical center
When you get services from an in‐network hospital or ambulatory surgical center, certain
providers there may be out‐of‐network. In these cases, the most those providers may bill you is your plan’s in‐network cost‐sharing amount. This applies to emergency medicine, anesthesia, pathology, radiology, laboratory, neonatology, assistant surgeon, hospitalist, or intensivist services. These providers can’t balance bill you and may not ask you to give up your protections not to be balance billed.

If you get other services at these in‐network facilities, out‐of‐network providers can’t balance bill you, unless you give written consent and give up your protections.
You’re never required to give up your protections from balance billing. You also
aren’t required to get care out‐of‐network. You can choose a provider or facility
in your plan’s network.

When balance billing isn’t allowed, you also have the following protections:
 You are only responsible for paying your share of the cost (like the co-payments,
coinsurance, and deductibles that you would pay if the provider or facility was in‐network).
Your health plan will pay out‐of‐network providers and facilities directly.
 Your health plan generally must:
o Cover emergency services without requiring you to get approval for services in
advance (prior authorization).
o Cover emergency services by out‐of‐network providers.
o Base what you owe the provider or facility (cost‐sharing) on what it would pay an
in‐network provider or facility and show that amount in your explanation of
o Count any amount you pay for emergency services or out‐of‐network services
toward your deductible and out‐of‐pocket limit.
If you believe you’ve been wrongly billed, you may contact

U.S. Department of Labor
Employee Benefits Security Administration
200 Constitution Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20210
Toll‐Free: (866) 4‐USA‐DOL ((866) 487‐2365)‐ebsa/ask‐a‐question/ask‐ebsa

Visit for more information about your rights under federal law.‐and‐regulations/laws/no‐surprises‐act

Welcome to The Arc Southwest Indiana’s Machine Readable Files (MRF’s).  To access our MRF’s, click here.

A note to our Employees or anyone else unfamiliar with MRF’s…

The link above leads to Machine Readable Files that have become a requirement under recent legislation, which is intended to improve price transparency for consumers.  Please note, the MRF’s will not help you or your members find care.  They are really intended for researchers, regulators and other vendors so they can analyze data and create User facing applications.

Thanks for reading!  Let’s use this tool to make better-informed decisions, save some money and improve quality!